Dark side of that is that it also means that our memories for facts and events are often not very accurate, and eyewitnesses are not very accurate.
What’s worse than that, it’s not only that our memories aren’t that good, it’s that we don’t even know when they’re not that good.
How confident are you that your memory is accurate about this event, their indication of their confidence is no prediction anyway about how accurate they really are, So if you ask people in situations where you can check up on them.
So that’s FRESH AIR.
Pleasure also figures into Linden’s previous book, The Compass Of Pleasure.
Pleasures of sex and food and the pain of bruises and similar injuries -you experience them because of your feeling of touch. Linden is a professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and is a former chief editor of the Journal Of Neurophysiology. I’m Terry Gross. Of course, whenever Gambling Feel Good, how Our Brains Make Fatty Foods, Orgasm, Exercise, Marijuana, Generosity, Vodka. In the new book Touch, my guest, neuroscientist David Linden, explains how pleasure and pain result from the weird, complex and often counterintuitive system of uch circuits involving the skin, nerves and brain. Keep in mind that to parents of young children, our conversation will include about sex in the context of neuroscience. Like a Kurd in Romanian orphanages in the 1980s and ’90s, So if a child is born into a situation, where social uch is deprived as long as there are not enough caregivers around, therefore that child will develop terrible psychiatric problems, attachment disorders, mood disorders, and on p of that physical problems with the digestive system and health, higher incidences of diabetes.
If a child is born blind, they can grow up and have a completely full and normal life.
Uch is so central to our humanity that it’s a problem to even imagine it.
They may be cognitively normal, psychiatrically normal and not have profound problems similar if a child is born deaf. Persist throughout life. These problems are not simply problems of childhood. Now pay attention please. Even if it’s just, you can definitely experience an intensification of that pain, like, a sugar pill. Furthermore, in the context of what we’ve been talking about -of, like, pain and pleasure and how the mind -how the brain handles that -what are a bit of your thoughts about placebo and the opposite of that, that is a nocebo, that is when you’re given something that you’re ld will intensify the pain. Even if they have been doing something really silly, the example that everyone uses is that everyone uses is that everyone remembers what innocuous thing they have been doing when they got the news about 9/11, like ironing clothes or feeding the dog. That memory that will otherwise be utterly discarded is now seared into one’s consciousness forever because of the strong emotional nature of that moment.
Another question isSo the question is this. What else can be emotionally salient? Chili peppers. You mention this odd experiment in your book. Could the genitals read Braille? Somebody you know actually conducted the experiment on herself and, It’s a weird question to ask in first place. Then again, the question that was raised was, people who are blind read Braille with their fingertips, well, the genitals are very sensitive.
One of your areas of research is memory. I’m almost sure I would love it if you will tell us something exciting in the forefront of science now that relates to our knowledge of memory, how it works and how it diminishes. That means that they are tuned to detect deflection in one direction versus the other. Besides, they cover about 180 the base degrees, If you looked in a microscope, you should see that they don’t make a full 360 degree circle. Usually, many of us are aware that there are sensors that wrap around the base of the hair follicles that only wrap around one the base half. That helps explain why chronic pain can be emotionally upsetting and really lead to depression, Therefore if pain produces one response in the pain center of the brain and another response in the emotion center of the brain. Two sensations are inextricably linked, Linden explains. We have this strong idea in the culture and in the language that emotion and uch are deeply linked. Just think for a moment. In my opinion the neuroanatomy bears this out. Why are my tender emotions made analogous with our uch sense? You should take this seriously. Why is it that when someone is emotionally clumsy, we call them tactless -literally, they lack touch? You should take it into account. I believe it points up a very interesting thing in our language.
Why are feelings called feelings?
For masochists, pain has enormous positive emotional meaning.
It’s on my thumb. When people sustain damage to one or the other, these areas are completely different, and, they can feel pain the way that is very odd. Although, now it’s throbbing. Essentially, as an example, I’d say if you sustain damage to your brain’s emotional pain center, thence you will have a syndrome called pain asymbolia. Loads of information can be found on the internet. Oh, that hurts. Pain asymbolics have no emotional component of pain whatsoever. They don’t enjoy pain. Look, there’re separate places in the brain -the primary somatosensory cortex for the facts and the posterior insula for the emotional aspect. On p of this, that’s awful. Oh, that hurts -ow, ow. That’s terrible. I think just as importantly -perhaps more importantly -there are separate sensory sides of pain and emotional facts of pain.
You wouldn’t have the typical emotional reaction -oh.
So if you whack yourself on the thumb with a hammer, you should go, yeah, that hurts, that hurts a huge bit.
People who have pain asymbolia are not masochists. For instance, boy, does that hurt. Braille. It’s an interesting fact that the key point is that the word sensitive is really what’s the quality of the pain?
Therefore there are people who sustain damage to the opposite system, the one for the discriminative facts.
Where on your body is the pain?
Is it stabbing or burning or aching? They say, By the way I have no information. That said, you say, oh, I’m so sorry. They say, I’m quite sure I have no info. Considering the above said. You become anxious about when is it preparing to stop, if you have chronic pain. When is it preparing to recur? Now please pay attention. It’s not that the anxiety medication directly affects pain perception. You see, rather, what it does is it breaks this horrible positive feedback loop between anxiety and chronic pain.
With a benzodiazepine drug, after that, oftentimes, that can bring at least partial pain relief.
That anxiety seems to trigger more chronic pain.
That’s why many people who suffer from chronic pain can get partial relief from ‘anti anxiety’ medication. Like the cornea of the eye or the tip of the clitoris or the tip of the penis are very sensitive in the sense that they can detect very fine deflections of the skin, they’re not very discriminative, other parts of the body. As a consequence, and it will fail if you attempt to read Braille with your genitals. They lack the Merkel type nerve ending. We think, Oh great, a life without pain! That’s right! That should be idyllic! You don’t have the protective reactions that are crucial, if you don’t have pain. Someone who is socially clumsy we call tactless literally they lack touch.
I think it’s important it’s telling us something that so loads of our common expressions in English refer to the tactile sense. If we had interaction with someone we might say, He or she rubs me the wrong way, when we think about the way we speak in our lives. I know that the rate at which someone strokes your hair can cause feelings of pleasure or annoyance should we seek for to put something painful in our food? I think it’s part of the explanation of why chili peppers are popular in food. I think I know it’s since it is rewarding to eat something that’s little bit ofthat is good for feeling texture and fine little bumps.
Fingertips are endowed with planning to recur? That anxiety seems to trigger more chronic pain. This is the real reason why many people who suffer from chronic pain can get partial relief from ‘antianxiety’ medication. You become anxious about, When is it preparing to stop, if you have chronic pain.
Look, there’re parts of touch, and one of them. They won’t feel any pain in general, folks who have this inherited syndrome if they whack themselves on the thumb with a hammer they’ll feel the pressure and the thumb will swell up. In my opinion So it’s is that both pain and pleasure are emotionally salient. That’s important. Eventually, what’s rather remarkable is that if you ask men and women to describe their orgasms -to write a little essay -a few paragraphs -and so you hire someone to take out all the words that give it away whether this person were male or female it’s achieved.